1014 North Bridge Street
Linden, Michigan 48451 USA



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<—less than

≤—less than or equal to

>—greater than

≥—greater than or equal to

±—plus or minus

§ —section

σ—σ, Greek letter, in statistics represents standard deviation

μg—Microgram, one-millionth of a gram (3.5 × 10¥8 of an ounce)

μg/L—micrograms per liter

AA—Activated alumina

AIC—Akaike Information Criterion

ACWA—Association of California Water Agencies

AMWA—Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies

APHA—American Public Health Association

ARARs—Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements

As (III)—Trivalent arsenic. Common inorganic form in water is arsenite

As (V)—Pentavalent arsenic. Common inorganic form in water is arsenate

ASDWA— Association of State Drinking Water Administrators

ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials

ATSDR—Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

AWWA—American Water Works Association

AWWARF—American Water Works Association Research Foundation

BAT—Best available technology

BV—Bed volume

CCR—Consumer Confidence Report

CERCLA—Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act administered by EPA for hazardous substances

C/F—Modified coagulation/filtration

CFR—Code of Federal Regulations

CSFII—Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

CWA—Clean Water Act administered by
EPA for surface waters of the U.S.

CWS—Community water system

CWSS—Community Water System Survey

DMA—Dimethyl arsinic acid, cacodylic acid, (CH3)2HAsO2

DNA—Deoxyribonucleic acid

DWSRF—Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

EA—Economic analysis

EDR—Electrodialysis reversal

EEAC—Environmental Economics Advisory Committee

e.g.—exempli gratia, Latin for ‘‘for example’’

EPA—U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

et al.—et alia, Latin for ‘‘and others’’

FACA—Federal AdvisoryCommittee Act

FR—Federal Register

FRFA—Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis

FSIS—Federalism Summary Impact Statement

GDP—Gross Domestic Product

GFAA—Graphite furnace atomic absorption

GHAA—Gaseous hydride atomic absorption


GW—Ground water

GWR—Ground Water Rule

HRRCA—Health Risk Reduction and Cost Analysis
ICP–AES—Inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectroscopy

ICP–MS—Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

ICR—Information collection request

i.e.—id est, Latin for ‘‘that is’’

IOCs—Inorganic contaminants

ISCV—Intra-system coefficient of variation

IX—Ion exchange

L—Liter, also referred to as lower case ‘‘l’’ in older citations

LD50—The dose of a chemical taken by mouth or absorbed by the skin which is expected to cause death in 50% of the test animals

LS—Modified lime softening

LT1/FBR—Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment and Filter Backwash Recycling Rule

MCL—Maximum contaminant level

MCLG—Maximum contaminant level goal

MDL—Method detection limit

mg—Milligrams, one-thousandth of a gram, 1 milligram=1,000 micrograms

mg/kg—Milligrams arsenic per kilogram body weight or soil weight

mg/L—Milligrams per liter

MHI—Mean household income

MMA—Monomethyl arsenic, arsenic acid, CH3H2ASO3

NAOS—National Arsenic Occurrence Survey

NAS—National Academy of Sciences

NAWQA—National Ambient Water Quality Assessment, USGS

NCI—National Cancer Institute

NCWS—Non-community water system

NDWAC—National Drinking Water Advisory Council for EPA

NIRS—National Inorganic and Radionuclide Survey done by EPA

NODA—Notice of Data Availability

NOMS—National Organic Monitoring Survey done by EPA

NPDES—National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for CWA

NPDWR—National primary drinking water regulation

NR—Not reported

NRC—National Research Council, the operating arm of NAS

NTNCWS—Non-transient non-community water system

NTTAA—National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act

NWIS—National Water Information System of USGS

OGWDW—Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water in EPA

OMB—Office of Management and Budget

PE—Performance evaluation, studies to certify laboratories for EPA drinking water testing

pH—Negative log of hydrogen ion concentration

PNR—Public Notification Rule

POE—Point-of-entry treatment devices

POTWs—Publicly owned treatment works, treat wastewater

POU—Point-of-use treatment devices

ppb—Parts per billion

ppm—Parts per million

PQL—Practical quantitation level

PRA—Paperwork Reduction Act

psi—Pounds per square inch

PT—Performance testing

PUC—Public utilities commission

PWS—Public water systems

QALYs—Quality adjusted life years
RCRA—Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

REF—Relative exposure factors

RFA—Regulatory Flexibility Act

RIA—Regulatory Impact Analysis

RO—Reverse osmosis

RUS—Rural Utilities Service

RWS—Rural Water Survey

SAB—Science Advisory Board

SBAR—Small Business Advocacy Review

SBREFA—Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

SD—Standard deviation

SDWA—Safe Drinking Water Act

SDWIS—Safe Drinking Water Information System

SEER—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results

SM—Standard Method for Examination of Water and Wastewater

SMF—Standardized monitoring framework

SMRs—Standardized mortality ratios


SOCs—Synthetic organic contaminants

STP–GFAA—Stabilized temperature platform graphite furnace atomic absorption

SW—Surface water

TBLLs—Technically based local limits

TC—Toxicity Characteristic, RCRA hazardous waste

TCLP—Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, tests for hazardous waste

TDS—Total dissolved solids

TMF—Technical, managerial, financial capacity

TOC—Total organic carbon

UMRA—Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

URTH—Unreasonable risk to health

U.S.—United States

USDA—US Department of Agriculture

USGS—US Geological Survey


VOCs—Volatile organic contaminants

VSL—Value of statistical life

VSLY—Value of statistical life year

WHO—World Health Organization

WS—Water supply



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